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Conway accused of Hatch Act violation; what is the Hatch Act?

At least twice last year, White House aide Kellyanne Conway violated the Hatch Act, according to the Office of Special Counsel.

Conway, an aide to President Donald Trump, has been notified that she was in violation of the law two times in 2017. The violations occurred when Conway gave interviews from White House grounds to Fox News’ “Fox & Friends” and CNN’s “New Day” defending the president’s support of former Supreme Court Chief Justice Roy Moore in his run for a U.S. Senate seat. Trump backed Moore who was accused of sexual misconduct involving teenage girls in the 1970s when he was a district attorney in Alabama.

>> Read more trending news

The Office of the Special Counsel said Conway advocated “for and against candidates,” which violated the act. The Office of the Special Counsel is not connected to Robert Mueller’s investigation of Russian meddling in the 2016 presidential election.

What is the Hatch Act and what is the penalty for violating it? Here’s a look at legislation.

What is the Hatch Act?

The goal of the Hatch Act is to “to ensure that federal programs are administered in a nonpartisan fashion, to protect federal employees from political coercion in the workplace, and to ensure that federal employees are advanced based on merit and not based on political affiliation.” The act was established in 1939 and most recently updated in 2012.

Which federal employees are included under the Hatch Act?

A handful of federal employees, including the president and vice president, are exempt under the act. Here is a list of those included in the act:

  • Administrative law judges (positions described at 5 U.S.C. § 5372)
  • Central Intelligence Agency
  • Contract Appeals Boards (positions described at 5 U.S.C. § 5372a)
  • Criminal Division (Department of Justice)
  • Defense Intelligence Agency
  • Federal Bureau of Investigation
  • Federal Election Commission
  • Merit Systems Protection Board
  • National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency
  • National Security Agency
  • National Security Council
  • Office of Criminal Investigation (Internal Revenue Service)
  • Office of Investigative Programs (Customs Service)
  • Office of Law Enforcement (Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives)
  • United States Office of Special Counsel
  • Secret Service
  • Senior Executive Service

What are they prohibited from doing?

Those employees under the act may:

  • Register and vote as they choose.
  • Assist in voter registration drives.
  • Express opinions about candidates and issues.
  • Participate in campaigns where none of the candidates represent a political party.
  • Contribute money to political organizations or attend political fundraising functions.
  • Attend political rallies and meetings.
  • Join political clubs or parties. 
  • Sign nominating petitions.
  • Campaign for or against referendum questions, constitutional amendments, municipal ordinances.

They may not:

  • Be candidates for public office in partisan elections.
  • Campaign for or against a candidate or slate of candidates in partisan elections.
  • Make campaign speeches.
  • Collect contributions or sell tickets to political fundraising functions.
  • Distribute campaign material in partisan elections.
  • Organize or manage political rallies or meetings.
  • Hold office in political clubs or parties.
  • Circulate nominating petitions.
  • Work to register voters for one party only.
  • Wear political buttons at work.

What is the penalty?

Penalties range from a reprimand or suspension to removal from federal employment. The Merit System Protection Board determines if a hearing is needed to address the finding of a violation of the Hatch Act, and considers whether removal is appropriate on the basis of the seriousness of the violation.

The department the employee works for could also be called to forfeit federal funds equal to two years’ of pay at the rate the employee was receiving at the time of the violation

National school walkout: When is it; what will happen

On school campuses across the United States Wednesday, students, teachers and parents will be taking part in a walkout to focus attention on the fight to end gun violence in schools.

Called the “ENOUGH National School Walkout,” the event was organized by students working with the Women’s March Youth Empower to call for action on gun control and to remember the 17 killed by Nickolas Cruz at Marjory Stoneman High School in Parkland, Fla., last month. 

>> Read more trending news

According to organizers, the goal of the walkout is "to demand Congress pass legislation to keep us safe from gun violence at our schools, on our streets and in our homes and places of worship.”

Here are the specifics of the event.

What time: The walkout will take place at 10 a.m. in every time zone.

Where: Students, teachers and administrators from across the country and in European countries have said they will participate. So far, 2,000 groups have registered with ENOUGH National School Walkout. Those participating are expected to walkout of class but stay on school grounds.

How will schools participate: It’s up to the student organizers, and depends on what the school will allow. Some students are planning a “lie-in” where they lie down to symbolize those killed in the Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School shooting. Others are having  discussions on gun issues and some are observing minutes of silence.

How long will it last: It will last 17 minutes, one minute for each person killed at Stoneman Douglas High School.

Will students get into trouble for participating: That is up to the school district. Many schools have said they will tolerate a walkout if it is orderly. Others have threatened to discipline students if they leave class.

For more information: Click here to see any events planned for your area.

Easter 2018: Quotes about the holiest day on the Christian calendar

This year Easter, the holiest day in the Christian calendar, lands on April 1. 

That day will mark the end of the Lenten season, and see the celebration by billions of believers of the promise of eternal life with God.

>> Read more trending news

Here are what some people say about Easter.

  • “Do not abandon yourselves to despair. We are the Easter people and hallelujah is our song.” – Pope John Paul II 
  • “Christ not only died for all: he died for each.” – Billy Graham
  • “The symbolic language of the crucifixion is the death of the old paradigm; resurrection is a leap into a whole new way of thinking.” – Deepak Chopra
  • “Easter is very important to me, it's a second chance.” – Reba McEntire
  • “Easter may seem boring to children, and it is blessedly unencumbered by the silly fun that plagues Christmas. Yet it contains the one thing needful for every human life: the good news of Resurrection.” – Frederica Mathewes-Green
  • “The first thing that stuck in the minds of the disciples was not the empty tomb, but rather the empty grave clothes – undisturbed in form and position.” – Josh McDowell
  • “It is at Easter that Jesus is most human, and like all humans, he fails and is failed. His is not an all-powerful God, it is an all-vulnerable God.” – Michael Leunig
  • “During the first 13 centuries after the birth of Jesus in Bethlehem, no one thought of setting up a creche to celebrate Christmas. The pre-eminent Christian holiday was Easter, not Christmas.” – Nancy Pearcey
  • “He is not here. He is risen.” – Mark 16:6
  • “Our old history ends with the cross; our new history begins with the resurrection.” – Watchman Nee
  • “Without the resurrection, the cross is meaningless.” – Billy Graham
  • “Jesus Christ did not come into this world to make bad people good; He came into this world to make dead people live.” – Lee Strobel
  • “Jesus said to her, “I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live.” – John 11:25
  • “Our Lord has written the promise of resurrection, not in books alone but in every leaf of springtime.” – Martin Luther
  • “Christ the Lord is risen today, Sons of men and angels say. Raise your joys and triumphs high; Sing, ye heavens, and earth reply.” – Charles Wesley’s hymn “Christ the Lord is Risen Today”

Toys ‘R’ Us considers closing U.S. stores: reports

Toys “R” Us will close all its stores in the United States after a worse than expected holiday season and the collapse of a restructuring plan, the Wall Street Journal is reporting.

The retailer, which filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy in 2017, has plans to liquidate its U.S. holdings after abandoning plans to restructure the company, The Journal reported, citing sources close to the matter.

>> Read more trending news

In February the company announced plans to close 200 stores. That announcement came not long after the company said 184 U.S. stores would be closed.

The company had been working to restructure its debt – nearly $5 billion worth – according to a story from Bloomberg News. 

Citing a source who asked not to be named, Bloomberg reported that the search for a buyer for the company had not been successful.

Both stories point out that the situation could change, and the option to close the properties in the United States is only one proposed plan.

Reuters reported that talks to restructure the company were continuing, and that other options were still being explored.

St. Patrick's Day 2018: How did it get started; why corned beef and cabbage; who is Patrick?

Start looking for shamrocks, get that “Kiss Me I’m Irish” T-shirt out of the drawer, and fire up the Crock Pot for corned beef and cabbage because March 17 is St. Patrick’s Day.

>> Read more trending news 

There will be celebrations honoring Patrick, the patron saint of Ireland, by more people around the world than could fit on the island to which he's credited with bringing Christianity.

Here's a quick look at St. Patrick's Day and everything green that goes with it.

What is St. Patrick's Day?

The first celebration of Patrick's life was an annual religious holiday held on March 17, the day it is believed that he died. The celebrations were feast days in honor of Patrick, who introduced Christianity to Ireland in the fifth century.

Who was St. Patrick?

Patrick was believed to have born in Roman Britain (Scotland), the son of a wealthy family. His name was Maewyn Succat. He was kidnapped when he was 16 and taken to Ireland as a slave. He escaped after, he said, God told him to run from his captors to the shore, where a boat would be waiting for him to take him back to Scotland. He fled, the boat was there and he headed home, but he didn't stay.

He returned to Ireland as a priest using the name Patrick. He worked there for the rest of his life to convert the Irish, who, at the time, practiced Celtic polytheism (Celtic paganism).

While he was never officially canonized, his followers regarded him as a "saint in heaven," thus he received a feast day from the Roman Catholic Church and the title of "saint."

How is it celebrated?

St. Patrick's Day is celebrated in various parts of the world. Until the 1970s, St. Patrick's Day was a religious celebration in Ireland, and the pubs in the country were closed.

Laws were passed then to open up the pubs for celebrations on March 17, and soon after, the country's leaders decided to market the holiday, highlighting Irish culture for tourism purposes.

The observance of St. Patrick's Day in Dublin, alone, has grown to a massive multiday celebration where around 1 million people take part.

In the United States, millions celebrate the holiday, whether they are of Irish descent or not. Two of the largest celebrations are in New York -- which hosts a five-hour parade -- and Chicago -- where city officials dye the river green.

Many people wear something green on that day, signifying a link to the color most associated with Ireland. Others lift a pint (or two) of beer at a pub or try corned beef and cabbage or Irish stew.

About that tradition of celebrating the day by eating corned beef and cabbage -- there's nothing more Irish than that, right?

About that tradition, well, we need to talk. Truth be told, corned beef and cabbage is about as Irish as a McDonald's Shamrock Shake.

Back in the day, people in Ireland would have celebrated the feast day with a meal of Irish stew and soda bread, or maybe a meal of pork and potatoes, which was inexpensive.

What has become a tradition of eating corned beef and cabbage to celebrate St. Patrick's Day likely grew out of the fact that those foods were less expensive for immigrants who came to America. They substituted beef for pork and cabbage for potatoes.

OK, at least the snake story is true, right?

Sorry, but that's a bit of blarney, too. There were no snakes in Ireland, so Patrick didn't really have anything to drive out of the country, with the exception of the druids.

Some think the story that Patrick drove the snakes into the sea was really an allegory for him driving the pagan practices out of the country to make room for Christianity. Others say it just makes for a good bit of gab.


Say what?

Let's say you want to impress your friends and throw out a few Gaelic phrases on Friday.

You will probably want to start with "Lá fhéile Pádraig sona dhuit!" That means "Happy St. Patrick's Day to you!"

It's pronounced: lah leh PAH-drig SUN-uh gwitch.

Native Irish speakers would shorten it to "Lá 'le Pádraig," a more casual way of offering good wishes on St. Patrick's Day. It's pronounced: lah leh PAH-drig.

If you want to impress your friends in a pub, you might want to throw out, "Pionta Guinness, le do thoil," or "A pint of Guinness, please." It's pronounced: Pyunta Guinness leh duh hull.

St. Patrick's Day by the numbers

  • There are 450 churches in the United States named after St. Patrick. Perhaps the most famous is in New York City.

  • It takes 40 pounds of dye to turn the Chicago River green for St. Patrick's Day.

  • According to the U.S. Census, 650,000 babies are named Patrick in a year.

  • A little more than 20 percent of the residents of Massachusetts say they are Irish; 20.6 of those in New Hampshire claim Irish ancestry.

  • According to Wallet, the value of a leprechaun's pot of gold is $1.22 million. That's 1,000 gold coins weighing 1 ounce each.

  • A crystal bowl of shamrocks is given by the president of Ireland to the president of the United States each St. Patrick's Day.

  • There are 16 places in the United States named Dublin.

  • 34.7 million U.S. residents claim to be of Irish descent.

  • 83 percent of those surveyed say they intend to wear green on St. Patrick's Day.

Sources:; Wiki How; Quora; National Geographic; Time and

Daylight saving time 2018: Seven things to know about ‘springing forward’

You may want to store up some extra sleep in the next few weeks because you are about to lose an hour of it.

Come March 11 at 2 a.m. most of America will be “springing forward” as daylight saving time kicks in, giving us another hour of sunlight.

Here’s a look at seven things you may not have known about daylight saving time.

  1. “Spring forward and fall back” is an easy way to remember how to set the clock when daylight saving times begins and ends. You set your clock forward one hour at 2 a.m. on March 11. You’ll set it back one hour at 2 a.m. on Nov. 4.
  2. In the United States, daylight saving time began on March 21, 1918. U.S. government officials reasoned that fuel could be saved by reducing the need for lighting in the home.
  3. Ancient agrarian civilizations used a form of daylight saving time, adjusting their timekeeping depending on the sun’s activity.
  4. Many people call it daylight savings time. The official name is daylight saving time. No ‘s’ on ‘saving.’
  5. Benjamin Franklin came up with an idea to reset clocks in the summer months as a way to conserve energy.
  6. A standardized system of beginning and ending daylight saving time came in 1966 when the Uniform Time Act became law. While it was a federal act, states were granted the power to decide if they wanted to remain on standard time year-round.
  7. Arizona (except for the Navajo, who do observe daylight saving time on tribal lands), Hawaii, American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, Puerto Rico and the United States Virgin Islands do not observe daylight saving time.

What is an ‘inclusion rider,’ the phrase Frances McDormand said during her Oscar speech?

On Sunday night, Frances McDormand won the best actress Oscar for her role in “Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri.”

McDormand used her acceptance speech to recognize all the women nominated for awards in this year’s Academy Awards ceremony and to alert producers that going forward, she would be asking for something else in contract negotiations.

“I have two words for you: inclusion rider,” McDormand said.

It’s not a phrase many are familiar with. An “inclusion rider” is a demand that can be part of an actor’s contract if they wish. It is a clause attached to the contract that requires producers of the film to reach a certain level of diversity when hiring the cast and crew.

Stacy Smith, the founder of the Annenberg Inclusion Initiative at the University of Southern California, was one of the first people to advance the concept of requiring companies to hire members from different cultural groups.

Smith told The Guardian that she had already worked on the language to be used in contracts for actors who are interested in inclusion riders.

“The typical feature film has about 40 to 45 speaking characters in it,” Smith said. “I would argue that only eight to 10 of those characters are actually relevant to the story. The remaining 30 or so roles -- there’s no reason why those minor roles can’t match or reflect the demography of where the story is taking place. An equity rider by an A-lister in their contract can stipulate that those roles reflect the world in which we actually live.” 

What is the ‘Einstein visa’ Melania Trump was issued?

First lady Melania Trump became a U.S. citizen after getting a type of visa that is reserved for immigrants with “extraordinary ability,” according to a story in The Washington Post.

U.S. Citizenship and Immigration Services says the EB-1, or the so-called “Einstein visa” that Trump was issued, is reserved for individuals who “have an extraordinary ability, are an outstanding professor or researcher, or are a multinational executive or manager.”

>> Read more trending news

The first lady came to the United States in 1996 on a tourist’s visa. Subsequently, she stayed in the country to work as a model from October of that year until 2001 by applying for and being granted an H-1B visa. The H-1B visa is an employment-based, non-immigrant visa. The visa allows foreigners to work in the United States on a temporary basis for up to six years.

Click here for a further explanation of the H-1B visa.

In 2000, Trump began applying for the EB-1 visa. She was modeling in the United States under the name Melania Knauss at that time. At the time, she was not yet married to Donald Trump.

Melania Trump was approved for the EB-1 in 2001 and became a U.S. citizen in 2006.

What is an EB-1 visa and how do you get one? Here is what the visa covers and who is eligible for one:

Who is eligible for an EB-1?

The EB-1 visa is not an easy document to get. Those who apply for one must be a member of one of three immigration classifications and must meet three of 10 criteria recognized by the USCIS.

Here is what the USCIS says about the EB-1 visa:

“You may be eligible for an employment-based, first-preference visa if you have an extraordinary ability, are an outstanding professor or researcher, or are a multinational executive or manager. Each occupational category has certain requirements that must be met.”

Extraordinary ability: You must be able to demonstrate extraordinary ability in the sciences, arts, education, business, or athletics through sustained national or international acclaim. Your achievements must be recognized in your field through extensive documentation. No offer of employment is required. You must meet three of 10 criteria below or provide evidence of a one-time achievement (i.e. Pulitzer, Oscar, Olympic medal)

Outstanding professors and researchers: You must demonstrate international recognition for your outstanding achievements in a particular academic field. You must have at least three years of experience in teaching or research in that academic area. You must be entering the United States in order to pursue tenure or tenure track teaching or comparable research position at a university or other institution of higher education. You must include documentation of at least two listed below and an offer of employment from the prospective U.S. employer.

Multinational manager or executive: You must have been employed outside the United States in the three years preceding the petition for at least one year by a firm or corporation and you must be seeking to enter the United States to continue service to that firm or organization. Your employment must have been outside the United States in a managerial or executive capacity and with the same employer, an affiliate or a subsidiary of the employer. Your petitioning employer must be a U.S. employer. Your employer must have been doing business for at least one year as an affiliate a subsidiary or as the same corporation or other legal entity that employed you abroad.

You must meet three out of the 10 listed criteria below to prove extraordinary ability in your field:

  • Evidence of receipt of lesser nationally or internationally recognized prizes or awards for excellence
  • Evidence of your membership in associations in the field which demand outstanding achievement of their members
  • Evidence of published material about you in professional or major trade publications or other major media
  • Evidence that you have been asked to judge the work of others, either individually or on a panel
  • Evidence of your original scientific, scholarly, artistic, athletic, or business-related contributions of major significance to the field
  • Evidence of your authorship of scholarly articles in professional or major trade publications or other major media
  • Evidence that your work has been displayed at artistic exhibitions or showcases
  • Evidence of your performance of a leading or critical role in distinguished organizations
  • Evidence that you command a high salary or other significantly high remuneration in relation to others in the field
  • Evidence of your commercial successes in the performing arts

How did Melania Trump fit into the categories and evidence required?

Melania Trump’s attorney, Michael Wildes told The Post that she “was more than amply qualified and solidly eligible,” for the EB-1 visa, but would not comment on the evidence she presented to be considered for the special visa.

She was a model in Europe and then the United States and was on the cover of British GQ and featured in a Sports Illustrated swimsuit edition. She had been modeling in New York in the years before she applied for the EB-1 and married Donald Trump.

According to the Post story, State Department records show that Knauss was one of only five people from Slovenia who received permanent residency cards or “green cards” under the EB-1 program in 2001, the year she received hers. A total of 3,376 were granted green cards via the EB-1 system that year. A green card is a permit that allows someone who is not a native to live and work permanently in the United States.

Testimonials are part of the process, and if she received a testimonial from her future husband, a real estate mogul in New York City, that could have gone a long way toward raising her profile, according to Susan McFadden, a lawyer who specializes in visas at the Gudeon and McFadden law firm in London.

"An experienced lawyer knows what the U.S. citizenship and immigration services are looking for, and how to bring out of the client's background things that will be attractive to the agency,” McFadden told the BBC.

Who is NRA head Wayne LaPierre?

Wayne LaPierre serves as executive vice president and chief executive officer of the National Rifle Association. The NRA is the largest gun rights advocacy organization in the country.

Who is Wayne LaPierre? Here are a few things you may not know about him.  

  • Wayne Robert LaPierre Jr. was born on Nov. 8, 1949, in Schenectady, New York. His family moved to Roanoke, Virginia, when he was 5 years old.
  • He was raised a Roman Catholic.
  • He spent a good portion of his career as a lobbyist.
  • He volunteered for the 1972 presidential campaign of Democrat George McGovern.
  • He earned a master’s degree in government and politics from Boston College.
  • He was on the boards of the American Association of Political Consultants, the American Conservative Union, and the National Fish and Wildlife Foundation.
  • LaPierre became executive vice president and chief executive officer of the NRA in 1991. The NRA has 5 million members.
  • He once told a friend his dream job was to retire from the NRA and open an ice cream stand in Maine.
  • He is married. His wife, Susan, is also involved in the NRA.
  • He makes nearly $1 million a year in salary.
  • He hosts a weekly syndicated television program called “Crime Strike.” In addition, he has a weekly podcast and offers a short broadcast on gun rights every weekday. LaPierre says he opposes universal background checks, an assault weapons ban (as it was proposed in 2013) and any limits to access to semi-automatic weapons by law-abiding Americans.
  • He says he supports armed security guards in schools, creating a computerized universal mental health registry of those judged to be incompetent and Project Exile, which mandates severe sentences for all gun crimes, especially illegal possession. He is an author and has written several books on gun safety and gun rights.

Do video games lead to mass shootings?

Kentucky Gov. Matt Bevin told a radio host the day after the mass shooting at a Florida high school, he believes the “culture of death that is being celebrated” in violent video games and movies are the trigger for violence.

Bevin, in an interview with radio host Leland Conway, said violent video games that glorify murdering people and even allow players to rack up points for showing less compassion was at the core of the increasing number of attacks on schools, churches and concerts.

>> Read more trending news

"There are video games that, yes, are listed for mature audiences, but kids play them and everybody knows it, and there's nothing to prevent the child from playing them," Bevin told Conway. "They celebrate the slaughtering of people. There are games that literally replicate and give people the ability to score points for doing the very same thing that these students are doing inside of schools, where you get extra points for finishing someone off who's lying there begging for their life."

Bevin has called out the makers of video games before where players score points for killing. Bevin posted an 11-minute video on Facebook where he said violent videos were a “cultural problem” that sparked the incident.

"We are desensitizing young people to the actual tragic reality and permanency of death," Bevin said. "This is a cultural problem."

Bevin has stepped up his attack, calling out other cultural influences such as music, television and movies, slamming them for violent lyrics or plots.

"Why do we need a video game, for example, that encourages people to kill people?" Bevin said. "Whether it's lyrics, whether it's TV shows, whether it's movies, I'm asking the producers of these products, these video games and these movies, ask yourselves what redemptive value, other than shock value, other than the hope you'll make a couple of bucks off it. At what price? At what price?"

According to a story from The Miami Herald, Nikolas Cruz, the  2018 Stoneman Douglas school shooter, would play video games for up to 15 hours a day. Cruz family friend and neighbor Paul Gold, who owns a film and video production company, said he sometimes played a game or two with Cruz.

The games Cruz liked to play were violent ones, he told The Herald.

“It was kill, kill, kill, blow up something, and kill some more, all day,” Gold said. 

Bevin isn’t the only one speaking out against violent video games. Others have pointed to such games as inspiration for similar attacks. But is there evidence that links playing violent games with taking a rifle and shooting people at a high school or some other venue?

The psychological community is split. 

A study by researchers at the University of York in York, England, found no evidence that adults who play violent video games were any more likely to commit a violent act then those who do not play the games.

The study of 3,000 participants released in January showed the games do not “necessarily increase aggression in game players.

The York study also examined the realism of the games and whether that had an effect on the way players later acted. They looked at games that used characters that moved and reacted as a human would, not just an animated character. Researchers concluded that “there is no link between these kinds of realism in games and the kind of effects that video games are commonly thought to have on their players.”

The York researchers pointed out in their conclusions that the tests were conducted on adults. "We also only tested these theories on adults, so more work is needed to understand whether a different effect is evident in children players."

A 2015 study by the American Psychological Association contradicts the York study in part. The APA study found that playing violent video games is linked to increased aggression in players, but that there is “insufficient evidence” to link game playing with criminal violence or delinquency.

Those conducting the study stressed that while an increase in aggression was seen in the subjects of the study, the games’ effect on certain people with certain risk factors needs to be studied further.

“We know that there are numerous risk factors for aggressive behavior,” said Mark Appelbaum, the chairman of the task force that conducted the study. “What researchers need to do now is conduct studies that look at the effects of video game play in people at risk for aggression or violence due to a combination of risk factors. For example, how do depression or delinquency interact with violent video game use?”

A study of 105 Canadian teenagers – boys and girls – found that the teens that spent more than three hours a day playing violent video games were in danger of delayed emotional development .

Mirjana Bajovic, the author of the study, noted that not all the teens playing violent games showed a delay in emotional development, and that no correlation existed between the level of emotional development and those who played nonviolent games. Bajovic did note that the time spent playing those games was the main factor in influencing “empathic behavior and tendencies.

A study published in Psychological Science led researchers to conclude that for some, assuming an identity in a video game can have real-world impact.

Researchers asked 200 University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign to choose to be either a villain or a hero in a video game, and what they saw was an impact in levels of consideration in the students.

“Our results indicate that just five minutes of role-play in virtual environments as either a hero or a villain can easily cause people to reward or punish anonymous strangers,” said Gunwoo Yoon, lead author of the study.

The students were given the choice to serve chocolate sauce to a stranger or to serve hot chili sauce. Researchers found that those who chose to play the hero – in this case, cartoon character Superman – would serve chocolate to the stranger. Those who assumed the villain role – Voldemort from the Harry Potter novels – would serve the chili sauce. 

The choices from the students were measured after as little as five minutes of playing the games. 


Who are the top 10 recipients of NRA money?

In the 2016 election, the NRA spent $11,438,118 to support Donald Trump’s campaign and donated $19,756,346 to groups opposing Hillary Clinton’s. However, the bulk of the contributions have gone to House and Senate members. Here is a look at the top 10 recipients of NRA contributions.

According to the Center for Responsive Politics, “the totals are a combination of money given to the member's campaign or leadership PAC from gun rights or gun control PACs or individuals in the 2016 cycle (2015-2016).

“The total dollar amounts comprise donations made by the National Rifle Association, its affiliates, and its members, as well as “outside money” consisting of campaign spending conducted on behalf of political candidates by NRA political action committees, in all campaign cycles since 1989.

“In addition, money spent by outside groups supporting and opposing these candidates is included in the total.”

Here is a list of the top 10 Senate and House members with the most contributions from the NRA. 

For the complete list from the Center for Responsible Politics, click here.


Who is Hope Hicks? 13 things to know about the White House communications director

Who is Hope Hicks and how did she get where she is at the age of 29? 

>> Read more trending news

Here are 13 things to know about her

  1. She was named interim White House communications director on Aug. 16, after Anthony Scaramucci left the job. She was appointed permanent White House communications director on Sept. 12, and 28 at the time, she is the youngest White House communications director in history.
  2. Her parents met in Washington. She grew up in Greenwich, Connecticut.
  3. She, along with her sister, Mary Grace, worked as a model. Among other jobs, she worked for Ralph Lauren at age 11, and appeared on the cover of the novel series “Hourglass Adventures.”
  4. Her father and grandfather worked in public relations. Paul Hicks, her grandfather, headed up public relations for Texaco. Her father was the chief executive officer of the Americas for Ogilvy Public Relations Worldwide and was in charge of public affairs for the NFL. He is managing director of the Glover Park Group
  5. She went to college at Southern Methodist University. She was on the lacrosse team.
  6. When she graduated from SMU she began work in public relations in New York City. Her second job was at the Hiltzik Strategies public relations firm.
  7. Ivanka Trump was a client of Hiltzik Strategies. Hicks met Ivanka Trump through the firm and eventually went to work for her handling public relations for her fashion line. 
  8. When Donald Trump decided to run for president he made her head of communications for the campaign.
  9. During the campaign, she transcribed Trump’s tweets. He dictated them aloud, according to New York magazine.
  10. She is well-liked and trusted by Trump. Trump said in an interview with The New York Times that Hicks, “will often give advice, and she’ll do it in a very low-key manner, so it doesn’t necessarily come in the form of advice. But it’s delivered very nicely.”
  11. On Dec. 22, 2016, Trump announced she would be the White House director of strategic communications. 
  12. Hicks made the January 2017 Forbes 30 Under 30 list. 
  13. She is paid $179,700 – the maximum salary for a White House staffer.

How difficult is it to purchase a gun in Florida?

Florida is a state where it is not particularly difficult to get a gun. The Giffords Law Center, which is a gun-control advocacy group named after former U.S. House Rep. Gabby Giffords, gives Florida an "F" grade for its gun laws. Below, from the Giffords Law Center, is a look at Florida’s gun laws. 

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In Florida, you do not need a license to own or purchase a handgun, shotgun or rifle, nor do you have to register a gun. Here is what’s required from the state for gun ownership.

How do you get a gun in Florida? 

In Florida, to purchase a gun from a gun store, you must pay $8 and complete the paperwork for a background check. If you pass the background check, you get the gun. If the gun is a rifle or a shotgun, you do not have to wait three days to get it. For a handgun, there is a mandatory three-day “cooling off” period in Florida, one of only 10 states that require any waiting period for the purchase of a gun. There is no federal waiting period required when purchasing a gun. Waiting periods are imposed by states.

Here is what Florida does not do:

Who is prohibited from purchasing a gun in Florida?

Federal law prohibits certain people from purchasing or possessing firearms. Felons, certain domestic abusers, and people with a history of mental illness are generally barred from buying a weapon. In Florida, a person is prohibited from owning or possessing a firearm if they:

  • Have been convicted of a felony, or are under 24 years of age and have been convicted of a delinquent act that would be a felony if committed by an adult
  • Have been issued a final injunction that is currently in force and effect, restraining that person from committing acts of domestic violence
  • Are a “violent career criminal,” as Florida law defines that term

What is the minimum age to purchase a gun in Florida?

In Florida, a person has to be at least 18 years old to purchase and possess a gun. There are exceptions to that law. Minors are eligible to possess a gun if they are:

  • Engaged in a lawful hunting activity and are at least age 16 or if under age 16, are supervised by an adult
  • Engaged in a lawful marksmanship competition or practice or other lawful recreational shooting activity, and are at least age 16 
  • Transporting an unloaded firearm directly to or from one of the aforementioned events
  • Florida law prohibits dealers from selling or transferring firearms to anyone younger than 18

Can someone who has become a person who would be prohibited from possessing firearms in Florida have their guns taken away?

No, Florida has no law requiring a person who has become a person who would be prohibited from owning weapons in Florida to surrender the weapon, nor is there a law that would allow law enforcement to take that person’s firearms.

If a person is the subject of a court-imposed protective order, then Florida does consider it a violation of that protective order if the person refuses to surrender his or her firearms.

What about a semi-automatic weapon? How tough is it to get those type of weapons? 

In most cases, it’s no tougher to get a semi-automatic rifle than it is to get a handgun. Seven states -- California, Connecticut, Hawaii, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey and New York – and the District of Columbia have enacted laws banning semi-automatic weapons. Minnesota and Virginia regulate semi-automatic weapons. There is no ban on purchasing the weapons in any other state.


What are the worst school shootings in modern US history?

Over the span of the United States' history, it has suffered many attacks classified as a "school shooting." The worst schools shootings include:

  1. Bath School: On May 18, 1927, a school board treasurer, Andrew Kehoe, killed 38 elementary school students and six adults at the Bath Township, Michigan, elementary school when he set off an explosion. Kehoe killed his wife and firebombed his farm, and then killed himself by detonating a final device in his truck.
  2. Virginia Tech: Seung-Hui Cho opened fire on students at the Virginia Polytechnic Institute in Blacksburg, Virginia. Cho killed 32 people and injured 17. The shooting took place on April 16, 2007. Cho committed suicide.
  3. Sandy Hook Elementary School: On Dec. 14, 2012, Adam Peter Lanza, after killing his mother, went to the school in Newtown, Connecticut, and started firing. He killed 26 children and adults. Lanza committed suicide.
  4. Marjory Stonehouse Douglas: Seventeen people were killed in a school shooting on Valentine’s Day 2018 in Parkland, Florida. The alleged shooter, Nikolas Cruz, 19, was taken into custody after the shooting.
  5. University of Texas Tower: Charles Whitman, an ex-Marine sharpshooter, climbed a tower at the University of Texas and began shooting people on the campus on Aug. 1, 1966. He killed 14 and wounded 31.
  6. Columbine High School: Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold killed 13 people and injured 24 before killing themselves on April 20, 1999, in Columbine, Colorado.
  7. Red Lake Indian Reservation: On March 21, 2005, Jeffrey Weise killed seven people at Red Lake Senior High School in Red Lake, Minnesota.
  8. Umpqua Community College: Christopher Harper-Mercer killed nine people at Umpqua Community College in Roseburg, Oregon, on Oct. 1, 2015.
  9. Oikos University Shooting: One L. Goh killed seven students at the Korean Christian College at Oikos University in Oakland, Calif. on April 2, 2012.
  10. California State Fullerton: Six were killed on July 12, 1976, when a custodian, Edward Charles Allaway, opened fire at the school.
  11. West Nickel Mines: Charles Carl Roberts shot eight and killed five girls at an Amish school in Bart Township, Pennsylvania.

Brad Parscale: Here are 9 things to know about Trump’s 2020 campaign manager

President Donald Trump on Tuesday named Brad Parscale, his former digital adviser, as manager for his 2020 re-election campaign.“Brad is an amazing talent and was pivotal to our success in 2016. He has our family's complete trust and is the perfect person to be at the helm of the campaign,” Eric Trump, the president’s son, said in a released statement.

Parscale was part of the president’s 2016 campaign, helping to launch the nonprofit America First Policies. The organization promotes the president’s causes and agenda.

Trump is the first president to publicly announced a run for re-election so soon after this (his?) election. There are nearly 1,000 days, plus a set of midterm elections, to go before the next presidential election.

“Brad was essential in bringing a disciplined technology and data-driven approach to how the 2016 campaign was run,” Jared Kushner, the president’s son-in-law and senior adviser, said in a statement. “His leadership and expertise will help build a best-in-class campaign.” 

Who is Parscale? Here are nine things to know about him.

  1. Parscale, a Kansas native, is 42 and is a digital consultant based in Texas.
  2. He spent five years in California before moving to San Antonio in 2004 to establish Parscale Media, a successful web marketing firm, according to his website biography.
  3. He partnered with Jill Giles in 2011 to form Giles-Parscale, Inc.
  4. In 2016 he was named digital director for the Donald J. Trump presidential campaign.
  5. He worked for the Republican National Committee after the 2016 election.
  6. He built websites for the Trump Organization before being hired to work on the 2016 election.
  7. According to an interview with CBS’ “60 Minutes,” Parscale said he used posts on Facebook to target and encourage audiences the campaign hoped would support issues backed by the president.
  8. He told “60 Minutes” he projected Trump's path to victory in the U.S. Midwest.
  9. He testified before the House Intelligence Committee investigating Russian meddling in the 2016 election. He denied using any information provided by the Russians to try to disrupt the 2016 presidential campaign.

The 2018 Oscars: What time, what channel, who is nominated, live stream

The 2018 Oscars ceremony is set for Sunday with “The Shape of Water” leading the field with 13 nominations. 

This year, as the Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences celebrates 90 years of presenting awards, officials say they have taken extra precautions to avoid a repeat of last year’s drama when the wrong movie was announced as the winner of the best picture award.

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“The Shape of Water,” along with “Dunkirk,” which has eight nominations, and “Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri” with seven nods, are among a field of nine that are up for the best picture award.

Daniel Day-Lewis, who starred in “Phantom Thread,” and Daniel Kaluuya who starred in “Get Out,” are among the favorites for best actor.

Oscars 2018: What are the top searched-for Oscar-winning movies of all time?

Sally Hawkins in “The Shape of Water,” and Frances McDormand who starred in “Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri,” are considered favorites for best actress.

So grab the popcorn, get your spot on the couch and watch to see how your favorite movie does.

Here’s what you need to know about the 2018 Oscars.

What time is the ceremony: The red carpet walk begins at 5 p.m. ET. The ceremony begins at 8 p.m. ET

What channel is it on: ABC is broadcasting the show.

Can you watch online: You can watch the livestream on ABC Go and the ABC app. You can also stream the Oscars through YouTube TV, Sling TV, DirecTV and Playstation Vue. 

Who's hosting: Jimmy Kimmel is hosting for the second year in a row.

Where is the ceremony taking place: The Oscars are being held at the Dolby Theatre in Hollywood. 

Who is presenting at the Oscars?

Here is a partial list of those presenting Oscars:

Mahershala Ali

Chadwick Boseman

Viola Davis

Laura Dern

Jennifer Garner

Greta Gerwig

Tiffany Haddish

Armie Hammer

Tom Holland

Kumail Nanjiana

Margot Robbie

Gina Rodriguez

Emma Stone

Daniela Vega


Who is nominated for an Oscar this year: Here’s a list of some of the nominees for the 90th Academy Awards.

Best Picture

“Call Me by Your Name”

“Darkest Hour”


“Get Out” 

“Lady Bird”

“Phantom Thread”

“The Post”

“The Shape of Water”

“Three Billboards outside Ebbing, Missouri”

Best Animated Feature Film

“The Boss Baby”

“The Breadwinner”



“Loving Vincent”

Best Foreign Language Film

“A Fantastic Woman” (Chile)

“The Insult” (Lebanon)

“Loveless” (Russia)

“On Body and Soul” (Hungary)

“The Square” (Sweden)

Best Directing

Christopher Nolan, “Dunkirk”

Jordan Peele, “Get Out”

Greta Gerwig, “Lady Bird”

Paul Thomas Anderson, “Phantom Thread”

Guillermo del Toro, “The Shape of Water”

Best Actor in a Leading Role

Timothée Chalamet, “Call Me by Your Name”

Daniel Day-Lewis, “Phantom Thread”

Daniel Kaluuya, “Get Out”

Gary Oldman, “Darkest Hour”

Denzel Washington, “Roman J. Israel, Esq.”

Best Actress in a Leading Role

Sally Hawkins, “The Shape of Water”

Frances McDormand, “Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri”

Margot Robbie, “I, Tonya”

Saoirse Ronan, “Lady Bird”

Meryl Streep, “The Post”

Best Actor in a Supporting Role

Willem Dafoe, “The Florida Project”

Woody Harrelson, “Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri”

Richard Jenkins, “The Shape of Water”

Christopher Plummer, “All the Money in the World”

Sam Rockwell, “Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri”

Best Actress in a Supporting Role

Mary J. Blige, “Mudbound”

Allison Janney, “I, Tonya”

Lesley Manville, “Phantom Thread”

Laurie Metcalfe, “Lady Bird”

Octavia Spencer, “The Shape of Water”

Best Adapted Screenplay

James Ivory, “Call Me by Your Name”

Scott Neustadter and Michael H. Weber, “The Disaster Artist”

Scott Frank, Michael Green and James Mangold, “Logan”

Aaron Sorkin, “Molly's Game”

Dee Rees and Virgil Williams, “Mudbound”

Best Original Screenplay

Emily V. Gordon and Kumail Nanjiani, “The Big Sick”

Jordan Peele, “Get Out”

Greta Gerwig, “Lady Bird”

Guillermo del Toro and Vanessa Taylor, “The Shape of Water”

Martin McDonagh, “Three Billboards Outside Ebbing, Missouri”

Best Original Song

"Mighty River," Mary J. Blige, Raphael Saadiq and Taura Stinson, “Mudbound”

"Mystery of Love," Sufjan Stevens, “Call Me by Your Name”

"Remember Me," Kristen Anderson-Lopez and Robert Lopez, “Coco”

"Stand Up for Something," Lonnrie R. Lynn and Diane Warren, “Marshall”

"This Is Me," Justin Paul and Benj Pasek, “The Greatest Showman”

Click here for the full list of nominees.

What does the Supreme Court ruling mean for DACA recipients?

The U.S. Supreme Court on Monday declined to hear an appeal by the Trump administration of a federal judge’s ruling that blocked, at least temporarily, the president from ending the Deferred Action for Childhood Arrivals (DACA) program.

The court declined to hear an appeal to the injunction ordered by U.S. District Judge William Alsup, that would keep the program in place past a March 5 date set by the administration to end it.

The High Court did not give a reason for its ruling, only saying it expected the lower court to “proceed expeditiously to decide this case.” The 9th U.S. Court of Appeals is hearing the case.

Under DACA, 700,000 young adults are protected from deportation and given work permits for two-year periods. They must re-apply for the program every two years.

What is DACA and why does Donald Trump want to end it?

Alsup’s Jan. 9 ruling came after former Secretary of Homeland Security, Janet Napolitano, and the University of California filed a suit to stop the administration from ending the program. Napolitano is now president of the university.

In asking the Supreme Court to hear the case instead of letting it move as it normally would to an appeals court, Solicitor General Noel Francisco argued that, "The district court has entered an unprecedented nationwide injunction requiring the government not simply to tolerate, but to affirmatively sanction, a continuing violation of federal law by nearly 700,000 aliens.”

Here’s a look at what that ruling means.

What did the ruling say?

The order was brief and said, "It is assumed the court of appeals will act expeditiously to decide this case." That means that the Supreme Court believes the 9th Circuit Court of Appeals should hear the case first. The administration had asked the Supreme Court to rule on the legality of ending the program.

What does the ruling mean?

Basically, it means that the Department of Homeland Security must continue to accept DACA recipients’ applications to renew their status until the 9th Court of Appeals rules on the matter. That means those in the program – the “Dreamers” – will be able to continue to submit their applications to remain in the United States.

How does it affect the March 5 deadline? 

President Donald Trump had set March 5 as a deadline to begin shutting the program down. That date is null after the ruling. Applications will continue to be processed. 

What happens next?

One of two things will happen: Either Congress will pass legislation to extend, kill, or come up with another program, or the case will make its way through the court system with the certainty that it will come back to the Supreme Court for a final decision.


Free Pancake Day 2018: IHOP offering free short stack on Tuesday

On Tuesday, the International House of Pancakes will be celebrating its 13th annual National Pancake Day. From 7 a.m. until 7 p.m. participating IHOP restaurants will be giving away short stacks (three buttermilk pancakes) in the hopes that customers will donate to the company's charity fund.

This year, IHOP has teamed up with Children’s Miracle Network patients to create pancakes with a twist. Look for Chocolate Cat Pancakes with Raspberry Custard and ‘Chocolate Chippies,’” “Oatmeal Raisin Pancakes,” and “SIMCakes” which are pancakes with milk chocolate toffee chunks.  

>> Read more trending news

The 2018 fund will benefit the Children’s Miracle Network Hospitals, the Leukemia & Lymphoma Society and Shriners Hospitals for Children. The company hopes to raise $5 million, according to a press release. Since the first free pancake day in 2006, the company has raised $30 million.

Some restaurants will extend the hours for the deals until 10 p.m. Check with your local restaurant for hours. There is a one free short stack per guest limit, good while supplies last, and it applies to dine-in customers.


What did president Trump say at CPAC? Watch his speech here

President Donald Trump addressed the Conservative Political Action Convention Friday, telling members of the group they would get their border wall, that he thought some teachers should be armed in school and that his administration "has had the most successful first year in the history of the presidency.”

>> Read more trending news

CPAC, hosted by the American Conservative Union, is held annually and is a favorite  gathering for conservative elected officials.

Trump has spoken at CPAC before – at the conferences held in 2011, 2013, 2014 and 2015. He skipped the conference in 2016 while he was campaigning for president. 

Trump engaged with the crowd in the more than 75minute spee-ch. He smiled when the audience chanted, “Lock her up,” in response to a comment about Hillary Clinton.

Here is the president’s speech from CPAC. Trump’s remarks begin at the 41:15 mark.

National Women's History Month: What is it, when did it begin, who is being honored this year?

This year marks the 30th anniversary of the passage of a law making March Women’s History Month in the United States.

The observation, which was born out of a California school district’s celebration of women’s achievements, now is celebrated across the country, and includes parades, lectures, health screenings, art exhibits and other activities that highlight women’s contributions to society.

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Here’s a look at the history of the movement, why it’s celebrated in March, this year’s theme and the National Women’s History Project honorees.

What is it?

Women’s History Month is a celebration of women’s contributions to society.

When is it?

In the United States, it is celebrated each year in March.

Why March?

March was chosen as the month to celebrate women’s history because the first observances of Women’s History Week revolved around International Women’s Day, which is March 8. International Women’s Day, which honors women’s achievements worldwide, was first celebrated on March 8, 1911. The United Nations has sponsored International Women’s Day observances since 1975.

How did it start?

In 1978, a school district in Sonoma, California, decided to honor women’s achievements by participating in a Women’s History Week event. According to the National Women’s History Project, schools hosted essay contests, presentations by women were given at many of the schools in the district and a parade was held in downtown Santa Rosa, California.

The following year, a two-week conference examining women’s history was held at Sarah Lawrence College. Those participating in the conference learned about Sonoma County's Women's History Week celebration and decided to organize similar celebrations within their own schools and organizations.

During the following seven months, they lobbied for a declaration of Women’s History Week and in March 1980, President Jimmy Carter issued a presidential proclamation declaring the week of March 8, 1980, as National Women's History Week.

In 1981, Sen. Orrin Hatch, R-Utah, and Rep. Barbara Mikulski, D-Md., co-sponsored a joint congressional resolution calling the week of March 7, 1982, Women’s History Week.

Schools across the country began to incorporate Women’s History Week into their curriculum and, eventually, the week grew into a monthlong observance.

Fourteen states had declared March Women’s History Month by 1986. In 1987, the National Women’s History Project asked Congress to establish March as Women’s History Month. On March 12, 1987, the celebration became official when legislation was passed to designate March as Woman’s History Month in the United States.

What is this year’s theme?

The 2018 National Women’s History Month theme is “Nevertheless, She Persisted: Honoring Women Who Fight All Forms of Discrimination against Women.”

The theme refers to remarks made by Senate Majority Leader Mitch McConnell, R-Ky., after he objected to Sen. Elizabeth Warren, D-Mass., reading a letter from civil rights leader Coretta Scott King that condemned then-Sen. Jeff Sessions, R-Ala. The Senate was debating Sessions nomination to become U.S. attorney general. McConnell objected to the reading of the letter on the grounds of “Rule XIX” which prohibits ascribing "to another senator or to other senators any conduct or motive unworthy or unbecoming a senator.” He called for a vote to silence Warren, which passed on party lines.

Who is being honored this year?

Here, from the National Women’s History Project, is a list of those being honored this year.

  1. Susan Burton: Burton founded A New Way of Life Re-Entry Project in 1998 to help women break the cycle of incarceration. Burton is a co-founder of All of Us or None and the Formerly Incarcerated and Convicted People’s Movement, both national grassroots civil rights movements comprised of formerly incarcerated individuals, their families and community allies.
  2. Margaret Dunkle: Dunkle played a key role in implementing Title IX, the law that transformed education for women and girls, from athletic fields to graduate schools. Her groundbreaking 1974 report documenting discrimination against female athletes became the blueprint for the Title IX regulations on athletics. Dunkle crafted the 1986 legislation that enabled low-income women to receive student aid without losing health insurance for their children.
  3. Geraldine Ferraro: Ferraro was the first female vice presidential candidate representing a major political party. In 1993 President Clinton appointed Ferraro U.S. ambassador to the United Nations on human rights, and in 1995 appointed her vice chair of the U.S. delegation to the Fourth World Conference on Women in Beijing.
  4. Jill Moss Greenberg: Greenberg is a lifelong crusader for fairness and the rights of underrepresented groups. She served as the first National Executive Director of NAME (the National Association for Multicultural Education).
  5. Roma Guy: Guy is a social justice activist and policy leader on homelessness, public health, poverty, LGBTQI rights, immigrant rights, and women’s rights. She was a consultant and one of the LGBTQI activists featured in the 2017 ABC miniseries “When We Rise.”
  6. Cristina Jiménez: Jimenez is a leader in the youth-led immigrant rights movement, and instrumental in creating the DACA program. She is executive director and co-founder of United We Dream, the largest immigrant youth-led organization in the country.
  7. Saru Jayaraman: Jayaraman responded to the 9/11 tragedy by organizing displaced World Trade Center workers and co-founding Restaurant Opportunities Centers United. ROC United is a leader in the “One Fair Wage” campaign to end the two-tiered minimum wage system.
  8. Marty Langelan: Langelan is a leader in the global effort to end harassment and gender-based violence. Langelan provides violence-intervention skills training for international human-rights organizations, anti-rape activists, environmentalists and others.
  9. Pat Maginnis: Maginnis is an abortion rights activist. In 1962 Maginnis founded the Society for Humane Abortion where she advocated for “elective abortion” and argued that all women had the right to safe and legal abortion. In 1966, she founded the Association to Repeal Abortion Laws.
  10. Arlene B. Mayerson: Mayerson is a leading attorney in disability rights law. She played a key role in drafting and negotiating the Americans with Disabilities Act and amendments to the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act.
  11. Pauli Murray: Murray was a civil rights and women’s rights activist. She finished first in her class at Howard Law School where she was the only female student. She was denied admission to graduate school in 1938 due to her race and denied a fellowship to Harvard Law in 1944 due to her sex. She went on to be the first African-American awarded a law doctorate from Yale (1965) and later became the first African-American woman to be ordained an Episcopal priest (1977). President John F. Kennedy appointed her to the Presidential Commission on the Status of Women (1961) and she was a co-founder of the National Organization for Women in 1966.
  12. Elizabeth Peratrovich: Peratrovich, an Alaska native of the Tlingit Nation, was a civil rights leader. She petitioned Alaska officials to end segregation of native peoples. She was instrumental in the Feb. 16, 1945, anti-discrimination act to protect the civil rights of Alaska natives.
  13. Loretta Ross: Ross has dedicated her career to feminist issues with a focus on women of color. She helped create the theory of reproductive justice, adding a human rights framework to include everyone in reproductive rights issues. She is a visiting professor teaching courses on white supremacy, reproductive justice, and calling in practices at Hampshire College for the 2017-2018 academic year. 
  14. Angelia Salas: Salas is a key strategist and leader in the national movement for immigrant rights and policy reform. She is the executive director of the Center for Humane Immigrant Rights.
  15. Linda Spoonster Schwartz: Schwartz overcame a military injury to become one of the nation’s leading veterans’ advocates, focusing especially on the unmet needs of women veterans. She was chair of the Department of Veterans Affairs’ Advisory Committee on Women Veterans, served as Connecticut commissioner/commandant of veterans affairs, was nominated by President Barack Obama to be assistant secretary of veteran affairs for policy and planning. She is the first and only woman elected president of the National Association of State Directors of Veterans Affairs.
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